WPC  sGoQ4?X8ܒRl4ԹUANEb%y)s H"}fHh;1 v¾M篋BC"Ec3rrU9=}*kde_j`$1EdžHFa?L6m|ip>%MS^=>B[ך`fHU$al=ytgAkOѰ57cLz[Ez^A:K[{wtç5՛K;@)(e~0d><.S)jTqjzo+5yݛ_Dw|!#*jSsH2r.BbLlkɍnAΫ2V\5xC1IP:crvq%8˲'{g?Q%hCoac:-mͿw O2 M-l%rnkHW#!U*N %1 0(7^ _w@k4 mE BGrad room,P<@@<,P0(9 Z6Times New Roman RegularX($v, D     U|(:i+003|x U d !  _ !XX;XX TheoreticalBackground      Inordertoreadsuccessfully,achildmustunderstandhowlettersrepresentthesounds(phonemes)ofEnglish.Somechildrentaughtwholewordreadingdonotfullymastertherulesaboutspellingsoundcorrespondencesandremainslowreadersandpoorspellers.Ontheotherhand,somechildrenlackthelevelofphonemicawarenessneededtolearnbyphonicsmethodswhichexplicitlyteachcorrespondencesbetweenlettersandphonemes.(Phonemicawarenessreferstotheconsciousawarenessofandabilitytomanipulatethebasicsoundsoflanguagecalledphonemes.)  Oneapproach,whichhashadsomesuccess,istodevelopphonemeawarenessatthesametimeasteachingletterstorepresentphonemes.Adifferentapproachistousephonologicalunitsintermediatebetweenwordsandphonemesforteachingbeginningwordidentificationandspelling.Syllables,onsets,andrimeswouldappeartobesuitableunits.  P$   Ӏ2  Childrencansegmentwordsintosyllableslongbeforetheycansegmentwordsintophonemes.Schoolagedchildrencansegmentsyllablesintotheironsets(theinitialconsonantorconsonantgroup)andrimes(thevowelandanyfollowingconsonants)beforetheycansegmenteitheronsetorrimeintotheirconstituentphonemes.Treiman(date)foundthatkindergartenandfirstgradechildrencanidentifywordswhichbeginwiththesameonsetsorendwiththesamerimes,buttheycannotalwaysidentifywordswhichbeginorendwiththesamephonemewhenthephonemeisembeddedintheonsetorrime.Forexample,achildmightrecognizethatcakeandcookiebegin 0  withthesamesoundorthatdarkandsparkendwiththesame  soundbecausethesoundsinquestionareonsetsandrimes.Thechildmightnotbeabletoindicatewhetherspeedandslowbegin P withthesamesoundorwhetherschoolandtallendwiththe  samesoundbecausethecriticalsoundsareindividualphonemesembeddedinonsetsorrimes  Onsetrimesegmentationabilityreflectsadevelopmentallevelofphonologicalprocessingthatoccursearlierthancompleteawarenessofphonemes.Ifonsetsandrimesareavailabletoyoungchildren,whereasphonemesarenot,itmakessensetousetheavailablephonologicalunitstoteachassociationsbetweenlettersequencesandpronunciation.Ifchildrenhavedifficultieswithreadingandspellingbecauseofundevelopedphonemicawareness,isitpossiblethat,byusingearlierdevelopingphonologicalunits,someofthedifficultiesinreadingacquisitioncanbeovercome?Preliminaryresearchis ,' Ї  Ӏ3 describedbelowwhichsuggeststhatusingpronounceablephonologicalunits(wholesyllablesandrimes)toteachlettersoundassociationsiseffectivebothwithyoungnormalbeginningreadersandolderstudentswithreadingdifficulties.   Experiment1 P   UsingOnsetsandRimeswithAdolescentPoorReaders      Penney(inpress)tested33highschoolstudentsregisteredinacoursedevelopedforstudentswithreadingdifficulties.Twentyoneexperimentalstudentsweretakenfromtheirclassroomsfor15to18hoursofindividualizedtutoringusingtheGlassAnalysiswordidentificationdrills.The12controlstudentsdidnotreceivethetutoringandremainedintheirregularclasses.BothexperimentalandcontrolstudentsweregiventheWordIdentification,WordAttack,andPassageComprehensionsubtestsoftheWoodcockReadingMasteryTestbeforeandaftertheexperimentalstudentsreceivedthetutoringprogram.  Inthetutoringsessions,studentsreadpassagesaloudandtheirreadingerrorswerenoted.ThestudentthendidGlassAnalysisdrillsforthewordstheyhadmissedandrereadthepassages.  GlassAnalysisdrillsrequirethestudenttorepeatlettersequencesforpronounceablepartsofwords.Inthedrills,wordsaregroupedtogetherwhichhavecommonspellingpatterns. ,' Ї  Ӏ4kTable1.GlassAnalysisDrillsStudentsees...cat0   Tutorsays...   Whatisthisword?Whatdoes_cee_Ԁaytee @(#(#    `    say?Ifthestudentsaysthewordcorrectly,   `    thetutorsaysgood.Tutorsays...   _Cee_Ԁayteesayscat `  Tutorsays...   Removethe_cee_.Whatdoesayteesay? p     `    Ifthestudentsaysthewordcorrectly,the   `    tutorsaysgood.Tutorsays...   Ayteesaysat.Canyouspellcat.    Ӏ*****2  Thedrillisrepeatedwithseveralwordsendingwithatsuch ` asbat,mat,that,andbrat,andthenseveralwordsoftwoor p moresyllables.Withmultisyllabicwordsthestudentisaskedtopronouncelettersequencesotherthanthetarget(atinthiscase).Forexample,withstatic,thestudentcouldbeaskedto ! pronouncestatandticoraskedtospellthesewordfragments. "@   Thestudentisnotaskedtopronounceisolatedphonemes,exceptforanoccasionalvowelsoundastheoinopen.With '`" complexwords,thestudentmightbeaskedtospellorpronouncewholesyllables(suchasperor_tion_)or_sublexical_ ) % unitsofmorethanonesyllable(suchas_itious_). 0+&  ,' Ї  Ӏ5` Results  p   ThetutoringprogramproducedlargerincreasesinWordIdentification,WordAttackandPassageComprehensionscoresfortheexperimentalthanforthecontrolstudents.(SeeTable2.)_ANCOVAs_Ԁonposttestscoreswithpretestscoresasthecovariateshowedasignificantgroupeffect(p<.05)forWordAttack,andhighlysignificanteffects(p<.001)forbothWordIdentificationandPassageComprehension.  *****q !;Table2.MeanRawScores(andStandardDeviations)onReading  MeasuresforControlandExperimentalStudents#;! # !;   `    TreatmentGroupandAssessment h    `  Experimental(n=21)0 p 0p#p#Control(n=12)0## Measure `  0   h Pre0##0##Post0p##0p#p#0 ##Pre0x # #0 x#x#PostX # # WordIdentification#;! k# !;0  0h##66.30h#h#0##75.90p##0p#p#0 ##69.90x # #0 x#x#74.0!  # # Ѐ(Max=106) 0  0h###;! #l;(13.6)0h#h#(16.5)0##0 ##(13.9)0 # #(16.8)#;l# #\ # #  !;WordAttack0 0 # #0h##22.30h#h#0##28.00p##0p#p#0 ##26.20x # #0 x#x#27.3%  # # Max=45 ` 0   0h # ##;!  #l;(10.5)0h#h#(11.4)0##0 ##(9.6)0x # #0 x#x#(10.6)#;l<"#&" # #  !;PassageComprehension0 h 35.70h#h#0##43.30p##0p#p#0 ##41.30x # #0 x#x#43.60(# # #0@(# # #\)$(##(## Max=68 ` 0   0h # ##;! ##l;(8.0)0h#h#0##(8.8)0p##0p#p#0 ##(7.7)0x # #0 x#x#(8.9) (# #;l$# *% # #   Ӏ6%   Experiment2%UsingOnsetsandRimesforTeachingBeginningReaders      SimmsLodgetestedtherimebasedmethodwithchildrenattheendoftheirkindergartenyearbeforetheyreceivedformalreadinginstructioninschool.Twentyeightexperimentalchildrenwerematchedto28controlchildrenonavarietyofmeasures(seeTable3)andtheexperimentalchildrenweretaught60wordsin15familiesof4rhymingwords.  Trainingwasdoneover5dayswithamaximumofonehourperday.Childrenwereindividuallytaughtfourwordsineachofthreewordfamiliesperday.Theexperimenterpointedtoeachword,pronouncedit,andaskedthechildtospellit.Theexperimentershowedhowthewordssharedcertainlettersequences.Eachwordwasreadandspelledthreetimesbythechildinatrainingsession.  Afterthelasttrainingsession,aretentiontestwasadministered(seeTable4).Inadditiontothe60wordsthathadbeentaught(thetrainedwords),anadditional60words(transferwords)werealsotestedwhichhadnotbeentaughtbutwerefromthetaughtrimefamilies.    Oneyearaftercompletionofthetrainingprogram,theexperimentalandcontrolchildrenwereretestedonallmeasuresadministeredatthepretest.(SeeTable5) ,'   Ӏ7Z+ Results  p   Onthepretestnosignificantdifferenceswerefoundonanymeasurebetweenthe28childrenwhoreceivedthetrainingprogramandthe28matchedcontrolchildren.(SeeTable3.) !;  *****   ,Table3.ComparisonofTrainedandControlChildrenonPretestMeasuresMeasure0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#TrainedGroup0ph(#h(#0p(#p(#ControlGroup (#(# Є1PeabodyVocabulary0 h 0h(#h(#102.8 p   0 (#(#106.8h (# (# 1WRATSpelling0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#105.3 p   0 (#(#101.5T (# (# 1WRATReading0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#105.4 p   0 (#(#106.3 (# (# 1WRATArithmetic0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#106.3 p   0 (#(#106.2 (# (# LetterandNumberNaming0  72.3 p   0 (#(#72.5D (# (#   Times(sec)OddManOut0 0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#10.4 p   0 (#(#11.6 H (# (# PhonemeTapping0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#4.7 p   0 (#(#4.04" (# (# RhymeProduction0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#8.4 p   0 (#(#10.1p# (# (# Rosner0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#7.3 p   0 (#(#9.1$ (# (# TargetWordsRead0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#13.1 p   0 (#(#20.5$'t" (# (# 125FrequentWords0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#21.4 p     29.9`(#(#(# p>.10foralltests,df=261AgebasedstandardscoresarereportedforPeabodyandWRATtests. ,d' Rawscoresareprovidedforallothertests. P-(  #;! e,#  Ӏ8  5  Ontheretentiontestallchildrenwerefoundtohavelearnedtoreadasubstantialnumberofwordsinthetrainingprogram.Nosignificantdifferenceswerefoundbetweenchildrenoflowandhighphonemesegmentationabilityoneithertrainedortransferwords.(SeeTable4.)  Wordidentificationwashigherwhenthewordsweretestedinrimefamilygroups(groupedcondition)ratherthanhavingthewordstestedinrandomorder(ungroupedcondition).Havingtheknownwordspresenthelpschildrenreadbyanalogyusingfamiliarorthographicrimes.(SeeTable4.)  *****^8 !;Table4.MeanNumbersofTrainedandTransferWordsReadCorrectly P ontheRetentionTestbutnotReadonPretest.TestCondition0   HighPhonological0p (# (#0p(#p(#LowPhonologicalT(#(# AV )xd@E?xA @ Ungrouped  TrainedWords0  0h(#(#29.60h(#h(#0(#(#0p(#(#0p(#p(#25.5"S(#(#   TransferWords0  0h(#(#9.80h(#h(#0(#(#0p(#(#0p(#p(#7.4?#(#(# Grouped  TrainedWords0  0h(#(#45.30h(#h(#0(#(#0p(#(#0p(#p(#44.1/(#(#(#   TransferWords0  0h(#(#36.80h(#h(#0(#(#0p(#(#0p(#p(#33.1k)$(#(# p>.05forallcomparisonsofhighandlow_segmenters_. -o(  #;! 8#  Ӏ9  =  Onthefollowuptestoneyearlater,childrenwhoreceivedthetrainingprogramhadsignificantlylargergainscoresthancontrolchildreninvocabularyknowledge(PeabodyPictureVocabularyTest),wordidentification(125FrequentWordsandthesetoftargetwords),phonemicawareness(OddManOut,PhonemeTapping,RhymeGenerationTask),andWRATArithmetic.(SeeTable5.) !;Table5.MeanGainScoresforTrainedandControlGroupsonallTestMeasuresMeasure0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#TrainedGroup0(#(#ControlGroup`(#(# AV )xdExA  1PeabodyVocabulary0 h 0h(#h(#0(#(#10.2  0 (#(# x 0.8**7 (# (# 1WRATSpelling0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#3.2  0 (#(#0x (# (#6.9#sx(#x(# 1WRATReading0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#7.90(#(#0 (#(# x 2.7_ (# (# 1WRATArithmetic0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#9.40(#(#   x 4.9*(#(# LetterandNumberNaming0  0(#(#2.6    0x(#(#2.4'x(#x(#   Times(sec)OddManOut0 0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#5.2    0x(#(#1.7**O!x(#x(# PhonemeTapping0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#3.1    0x(#(#0.1**"x(#x(# RhymeProduction0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#7.9    0x(#(#4.9*#x(#x(# Rosner0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#11.5    0x(#(#10.2%S x(#x(# TargetWordsRead0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#100.0  0 (#(#0x (# (#76.0**?&!x(#x(# 125FrequentWords0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#90.9     x 74.3**{'"(#(# ̀*p<.05,**p<.01#;! P?# !; )C% 1GainsareinstandardscoresforthePeabodyandWRATtests. /+& Otherwisegainsareinrawscores. k,'  #;! H#  Ӏ10  I  Experiment3IALongitudinalStudywithSchoolagedPoorReaders  Sixteenschoolagedchildrenranginginagefrom7years,8monthsto17yearsparticipatedinalongitudinalstudy.Thechildrenwerereferredfordifficultywithreading.Thereadingandspellingachievementofthechildrenwasassessed,andtheyweregivenanumberofphonologicalprocessingtests.  Ӏ*****KTable6.Means,standarddeviations,andrangesforStandard_Sscores_ԀonWoodcockReadingMasteryTests,ListeningComprehension,PeabodyVocabulary,andRavensProgressiveMatrices   `     h   Mean0 p 0p(#p(#SD0 (#(#0x (# (#Range x(#x(# WordIdentification0 h 0h(#h(#73.60p(#(#0p(#p(#17.50x(#(#4696!x(#x(# WordAttack    h   73.8 p   14.3 x 4194 "@ PassageComprehension  79.6 p   16.7 x 53120 P$ WordComprehension h   82.30 p 0p(#p(#16.20x(#(#56116%!x(#x(# WRATSpelling0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#80.1 p   7.8 x 6893'`"(#(# TestofWrittenSpelling0 h 0h(#h(#74.60p(#(#0p(#p(#7.80x(#(#61880@!p(#p(#p(#x(#x(# ListeningComprehension0  103.40p(#(#0p(#p(#14.60x(#(#70132) %x(#x(# PeabodyVocabulary0 h 0h(#h(#100.00p(#(#0p(#p(#13.50x(#(#811220+&x(#x(# RavensMatrices0  0h(#(#0h(#h(#105.10p(#(#0p(#p(#18.50x(#(#73139,'x(#x(# Ї  Ӏ11R  Aftertheinitialassessment,therewasacontrolperiodduringwhichthechildrenreceivednotreatment,andtheparentswereaskednottoenrolthechildreninprivatetutoringprogramsforreading.Manyofthechildrenwerereceivingextrahelpinschoolfortheirreadingandspellingdifficulties.Afteratleastsixmonths,thechildrenwerereassessed,andthenenteredantutoringprograminwhichtheyreceived30hoursofindividualizedtutoringusingtheGlassAnalysisprocedureofExperiment1.Afterthetutoringprogramwascompleted(whichrequiredaperiodofatleastsixmonths),thechildrenwereagainreassessed.  Toassessreadingachievement,foursubtestsoftheWoodcockReadingMasteryTestwereadministered:WordIdentification,WordAttack,WordComprehension,andPassageComprehension.Toassessspellingachievement,thespellingsubtestoftheWideRangeAchievementTestandthePredictableWordssubtestoftheTestofWrittenSpellingwereadministered.  Ifthetutoringprogramiseffective,greatergainsinreadingandspellingshouldbeseenduringtheexperimentalthanduringthecontrolperiod.Ifthetutoringprogramisnoteffective,onewouldexpectalinearincreasefromthefirsttothethirdassessments.  ) %   Ӏ12W Results  `   Theaveragetimeintervalbetweenthefirstandsecondassessments(thecontrolperiod)was8.4months(sd=4.7),andtheaverageintervalbetweenthesecondandthirdassessments(theexperimentalperiod)was10.6months(sd=3.76).Thedifferenceinmeanswasnotstatisticallysignificant,t(15)=1.28,p>.05.     Linearincreasesinscoresweresignificantforallmeasures,butthequadraticcomponentwasstatisticallysignificantonlyforthePassageComprehension,F(1,15)=20.5,p<.001,theTWS 0  PredictableWords,F(1,15)=28.1,p<.001,andtheWRAT  Spelling,F(1,13)=7.64,p<.02.Thesignificantquadratic @ componentindicatesthatthedifferencebetweencontrolandexperimentalperiodswasstatisticallysignificant.Thus,thetutoringprogramproducedsignificantlygreaterimprovementsinPassageComprehensionandspellingduringthetutoringthanthecontrolperiod.  InExperiment1,significantlygreaterincreasesinbothWordIdentificationandWordAttackwereobtainedfortheexperimentalthancontrolparticipants,butinExperiment3,theincreasesforthesemeasuresovertheexperimentalperiodwerelargerthantheincreasesoverthecontrolperiodbutnotsignificantlyso.  ,'   Ӏ13]Table6.MeanRawScoresandStandardDeviationsfortheReadingandSpellingMeasuresMeasure0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#0h(#h(#0(#(#Assessment (#(#    `     h 10  0p(#(#0p(#p(#20 (#(#0x (# (#0 x(#x(#3P  (# (# WordIdentification0 h 53.80h(#h(#0p(#(#58.90 p(#p(#0x (# (#66.1` x(#x(#    `     h (18.5)0  0p(#(#(14.7)0 p(#p(#0x (# (#(11.2)p x(#x(# WordAttack0 0 (# (#0h(#(#15.00h(#h(#0p(#(#16.90 p(#p(#0x (# (#23.50 x(#x(#    `     h 9.20  0p(#(#8.70 p(#p(# x 8.50@"(#(# (# (# Word0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#38.00h(#h(#0p(#(#41.20 p(#p(#0x (# (#50.3Px(#x(# Comprehension0  0h(#(#(15.7)0h(#h(#0p(#(#(16.1)   x (16.1)p(#p(# Passage0 ` 0 ` (#` (#0 (# (#0h(#(#31.80h(#h(#0p(#(#33.90 p(#p(#0x (# (#40.3px(#x(# Comprehension0  0h(#(#(11.1)   p (10.2)0 h(#h(#0x (# (#(8.1) x(#x(# TWS(Predictable)0  0h(#(#13.60h(#h(#0p(#(#15.20 p(#p(#0x (# (#20.6!x(#x(#    `  0  0h(#(#(6.1)0h(#h(#0p(#(#(7.3)0 p(#p(#0x (# (#(7.2)"@x(#x(# WRATSpelling0  0h(#(#23.20h(#h(#0p(#(#23.30 p(#p(#0x (# (#27.1%!x(#x(#    `     h (2.3)0  0p(#(#(3.3)0 p(#p(#0x (# (#(3.2)'`"x(#x(#   ) %   Ӏ14h   @ ConclusionsfromExperiments1,2,and3  p h1)TheuseoftheGlassAnalysiswordidentificationdrillstoteachassociationsbetweenpronounceable_sublexical_phonologicalunitssuchasrimesandsyllablesiseffectiveinincreasingreadingandspellingachievementinschoolagedchildrenwithreadingdifficulties.Eventhoughreadingcomprehensionstrategieswerenottaught,improvementsinwordidentificationandwordattack(inExperiment1)andinspelling(Experiment3)wereaccompaniedbyincreasedreadingcomprehension.2)UseoftheGlassAnalysisdrillswasalsoeffectiveinincreasingwordidentificationskillsinnormalbeginningreaders.Childrentrainedtoreadwordsfromrimefamiliesshowedsometransferoflearningtowordsofthesamefamilieswhichhadnotbeentaught.Oneyearafterthetrainingprogram,trainedchildrenshowednotonlyretentionofwhattheyhadlearned,butshowedtransfertowordswhichdidnotbelongtothetrainedfamilies.Thetrainedchildrenalsoshowedsignificantlygreatergrowthinvocabularyandarithmeticskillsthandidthecontrolchildren.  '`"   Ӏ15mTheNextStep:AComputerizedProgramtoTeachWordIdentificationandSpellingtoBeginningReaders      Muchofwhatthetutorsdointhetutoringprogramunderinvestigationcanbeprogrammedintoacomputer.Suchaprogramwouldenablebeginningreaderstoreceiveindividualizedinstructionsothateachchildcanproceedathisorherownpace,receivingtheamountofrepetition,practice,reviewandtestingnecessarytoproducemastery.Withthecomputerizedprogram,childrenwithpoorphonologicalprocessingskills,whowouldnormallybeathighriskofreadingacquisitionfailure,wouldbenefitfromslowerpacingandextrapracticewhilenotbeingsingledoutasrequiringspecialtreatment.Childrenwithotherphysicalorcognitivedisabilitiesmightalsobenefit.  Oncedeveloped,thecomputerprogramcanbedeliveredonCDROM,orlessonscanbedeliveredovertheinternetatlowcosttoanycountryintheworld.Availabilityofsuchaneducationaltoolwouldbeparticularlybeneficialforsmall,isolated,ruralornortherncommunitieswherespecialistteachersareoftenunavailable.   ,'  cy ; cy ;XXTRP$'3 Letter LandscapeX3' Letter'3 Letter Landscape3'T  TheEffectivenessof;t_        TeachingLetterSoundtt    CatherineG.Penney& G.#;  cy}r# cy ;  0 t    M#;  cyu# cy ;emorial U #;  cy;v#  cy ;niversity#;  cyw#  cy ; 0 uHu&uAssociationsbyUsingRimes G. Penney&#;  cyv# cy ;CarrieDyck 0  U#;  cyw# cy ;niversity#;  cyex# cy ;#;  cyx# cy ;Ԁ ofNewfoundland 0 ЇandSyllables#;  cyx#